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KENTUCKY - A GUIDE TO THE BLUEGRASS STATE - 1939

LEXINGTON

Railroad Stations: Union Station, Viaduct and E. Main St., for Louisville & Nashville R.R., and Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; S. Broadway and Angliana Ave. for Southern Ry.

Bus Station: Union Station, 244 E. Main St. for Greyhound, Fleenor, Nunnelly, Phillips and Cooper Lines.

Airport: Municipal, 6 m. N. on Newtown Pike; chartered planes, no scheduled service.

Buses: Fare 5 cents .

Accommodations: Five hotels.

Information Service: Lafayette Hotel, E. Main St. at Union Station Viaduct; Phoenix Hotel, Main and Limestone Sts. ; Board of Commerce, Main and Upper Sts. ; Bluegrass Auto Club, Esplanade.

Radio Station: WLAP (1420 kc.).

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Little Theater, Transylvania College and Guignol Theater, University of Kentucky, monthly civic talent plays; six motion picture houses.

Swimming: Municipal Pool, Castlewood City Park, 25 cents ; Clay's Ferry, 15 m. on US 25; Valley View, 15 m. S. on Tates Creek Rd.; Boonesboro, 25 m. S. via US 25; Joyland Park, 3 m. N. on US 27; Johnson's Mill, 12 m. N. on Newtown Rd. Golf: Picadome, S. Broadway extended, 18 holes, greens fee 50 cents Mon.-Fri., 75 cents Sat. and Sun.

Tennis: Woodland Park, Woodland and High Sts., free; Duncan Park, Limestone and 5th Sts., free; University of Kentucky, Rose St., lO cents per hour; Castlewood Park, Bryan Station Rd. and Castlewood Drive, free.

Riding: 123rd Kentucky Cavalry Club, Henry Clay Blvd., 75 cents per hour. Lexington Riding School, Tates Creek Pike, 75 cents .

Racing: Keeneland, 5 m. W. on US 60, running races (mutuel betting), April and October.

Trots: Kentucky Trotting Horse Breeders' Association, S. Broadway extended, June and September.

Polo: Iroquois Hunt and Polo Grounds, 6 m. E. on US 60, June through September. Annual Events: Blessing of Hounds, beginning of hunt season, November Iroquois Hunt Club; May Day Festivals, University of Kentucky and Transylvania College; Junior League Horse Show (Saddle Horses), latter part of July; Tobacco Carnival; Farm and Home Convention, University of Kentucky, November.

For further information regarding this city, see LEXINGTON AND THE BLUEGRASS COUNTRY, another of the American Guide Series, published April 1938 by the city of Lexington, Ky.

LEXINGTON (957 alt., 45,736 pop.), third largest city in Kentucky, lies on a rolling plateau in the heart of the Bluegrass Country. The golden stallion weathervane on the Fayette County Courthouse symbolizes an aristocracy of horses. An early law passed in this county just after the Revolution was designed to keep the blood of race horses pure. The law was superfluous. The city has few industries except those that have to do with tobacco and horses; and it preserves and advances education and culture.

Lexington draws shoppers and sightseers from the farms and small cities of the Bluegrass, and from the more distant hills. It is unusually busy on Saturday nights when farmers and horse breeders and Negro farm hands come to town. In early fall about 4,000 students of the University of Kentucky and of Transylvania College pour into the city.

In December, January, and February, the tobacco auctions are held. By wagon, bus, and truck, a-horse and in limousine, on shanks' mare and thoroughbred, come tobacco growers, buyers, auctioneers, warehousemen and officials of billion-dollar cigarette companies, all bound for the 26 huge tobacco warehouses. Often $40,000,000 is exchanged over the baskets of sorted tobacco leaves in this important looseleaf light burley tobacco mart. During this season Lexington's Main Street (the Dixie Highway through the city) is a particularly active shopping thoroughfare. Stores in old and new buildings are concentrated on Main Street between Broadway and Rose, and on intersecting side streets. There are few modern buildings most of them date from the War between the States, and they bear their age with dignity. Just north of Main Street are the churches, the public buildings, the old Georgian Colonial houses with gleaming white doorways, highly polished door knockers, and ivy-clad walls. Just south of Main Street are the railroad tracks flanked by livestock, wool, bluegrass seed, and grain warehouses and markets, and a rooming house, pawnshop, and saloon district.

The University of Kentucky is only a few blocks farther south on Limestone Street, and the university boys and girls overflow into Main Street, where comfortable and well-dressed Bluegrass folk stroll, rubbing elbows with hill people in less fancy clothes, city business men, tobacco men, horse breeders and horse buyers.

Scattered through all the better sections of town are some of the big old homes, set back among trees and shrubs and well-kept lawns. Local industry has never driven the old families out of their early homes.

The Negroes make up more than a third of the population, and live in their own sections in the northeast and the southwest. Partly because they are integrated in Lexington life, their place is fixed and fairly secure; they are cooks, horse trainers, farm hands, servants, and local laborers. They have their churches and burying societies, their choirs and their parties, and they have made substantial progress in education and home ownership.

The city was named after the Battle of Lexington by Robert Patterson, Simon Kenton, and others who in June 1775 were camped nearly opposite the present Lexington Cemetery while on their way to build a fort near the Kentucky River. Four years later the town was founded when a blockhouse was put up at Main and Mill Streets and in 1782 the General Assembly of Virginia granted it a charter. In 1784 Gen. James A. Wilkinson, friend of Washington, entered his checkered western career by opening a store in the village. The next year the first tavern hung out its hospitable sign on West Main Street: "Entertainment for man and beast, by James Bray." In 1787 Transylvania Seminary was removed here from Danville. The first issue of John Bradford's Kentucky Gazette appeared in the same year. Merchants brought wares from Philadelphia and Baltimore, accepting in payment ginseng, homespun linens, and cured meats. Hemp, a fine cash crop, and lumber, tobacco, and whisky were exported. Money was scarce, barter common. Change was made by cutting coins into halves, quarters, and eighths.

Raw materials were made into shoes, hats, woolen goods, ducking, white lead, and other commodities. Most important of all was the making of hemp rope for ships' rigging. Lexington was the chief industrial city of Kentucky until about 1820 when the paddlewheeler began industrializing the Ohio Valley and attracting inland industrial plants to the river bank.

One early industry that the Ohio River had nothing to do with was the breeding of light horses thoroughbreds, trotters, and saddle horses. "They may race 'the ponies' at Louisville, Santa Anita, Paris, France, or Timbuctoo," says the staunch booster of Lexington, "but they breed them, and they rear them, and they train them at Lexington." It was a horse named Lexington, foaled in 1850 at The Meadows, an estate nearby, that founded the family of Fair Play, Man o' War, and War Admiral, and men say there are others here as good.

The men from Virginia and Maryland who settled the city rode their best horses over the mountains, or floated them on flatboats down the Kentucky River. The first impromptu Lexington races were held in 1787, and the first jockey club was organized 10 years later. In the early years of the next century breeding stallions were imported from England and Arabia. From these came the modern race horse (see Kentucky Horses).

By 1800 schools of medicine and law had been added to Transylvania, making the town one of the most important academic centers in the West. Notables came to the town and college: Henry Clay led a group of men who for fifty years spread the fame of the college and Lexington across the Nation.

In 1830 Lexington started to build the Lexington and Ohio Railroad, which was finished in 1832 to a point six miles west of the town. That year the town became a city.

Despite a cholera epidemic that swept the Bluegrass in 1833, killing 500 in the city alone, the young metropolis at the end of the decade was riding high on increased farming and light horse and livestock breeding. The richest money crop of those days was hemp, which went into the rigging of Yankee clippers. The soil was also fine for tobacco, which became much more important to the city.

The nation-wide panic of 1837 stifled Lexington business. Then, as the city was getting back on its feet, North and South came to blows. Although it gave a cavalry general, John Hunt Morgan, to the South, and Jefferson Davis went to school here, Lexington also spilled its blood for the Union.

The War between the States, however, established the cigarette market. Before the war, men were content to chew tobacco or smoke an occasional cigar; but soldiers began "rolling their own" with bits of tobacco, and unconsciously started one of America's biggest industries. When the war was over they carried a craving for cigarettes to all corners of an expanding Nation. It was a good thing for Lexington, because steam was driving the clipper from the seas, and Lexington's hemp lay unsold.

Lexington after the war, however, concentrated primarily on horses. In the 1870's, when the bookmakers appeared and betting became an industry, racing again revived and with it Lexington's favorite work of breeding, rearing, and training thoroughbreds. The great horse farms began to revive; wealthy easterners, attracted to the Bluegrass, started to buy land, build estates, and raise horses. Neighborly dash races were held, and stallion shows were feature events just outside of town.

During the war, the State-supported University of Kentucky was started in the city. It took over much of Transylvania's work, whose faculty and students were scattered by the war. Transylvania later affiliated with the College of the Bible and specialized in religious teachings. Growing swiftly after 1900, the university was modernized and expanded, and today it ranks high among State educational institutions. The World War boomed the cigarette industry. Tobacco sales and prices went so high that Lexington did not suffer much when prohibition came and closed the distilleries. With record crops and soaring prices, tobacco money became plentiful in the Bluegrass and its capital. When Lexington celebrated its sesquicentennial with a round of speechmaking and pageantry in 1925, it was a wealthy and going city.

The 1929 crash hit the city hard for a while. Poverty-stricken farmers in other States and in Kentucky all began to grow tobacco. Prices held up until excess production cut them sharply in 1932. They lay at rock bottom until the great drought in the middle thirties, and then began to rise gradually. In 1937 Lexington markets, which open before any others in the Burley Belt, cashed in on a record crop which sold at the high average of $22.45 a hundredweight.

The University of Kentucky is one of the most important sources of business in the town. Each year thousands of school children, farmers, ministers, and others flock into Lexington to attend conferences and athletic contests conducted under the auspices of the university. Hundreds of research people come annually to the town to use the rare materials contained in the two university libraries and the Lexington public library. The combined facilities of these libraries constitute a notable collection of Americana, especially that relating to the Ohio Valley.

POINTS OF INTEREST

1. ASHLAND (private), SE. corner Sycamore and Richmond Rds., was the home of Henry Clay (1777-1852). The present house, reconstructed by Maj. T. Lewinski, Lexington architect, dates from 1857 and although it follows the same plan as the original designed by Latrobe and built for Clay in 1806, the architectural detail is greatly changed. Set back from the street among trees planted by Clay, the two-story central mass of this great brick house is flanked by onestory wings. The main entrance projects in the form of a bay; the simple doorway has a half-circle fanlight and plain molded architrave and cornice. The Palladian window above is accentuated by a small eave pediment that relieves the straight cornice line of the roof. Beside the house is a thick pine grove, and the path Clay liked to pace as he composed his speeches. Mrs. Clay's garden, laid out by L'Enfant, is behind the house. Beyond the south lawn were the slave quarters and barns, with the great estate, on which Clay bred fine cattle and horses, spreading away to the south.

Clay lived here from 1797 until his death in 1852. Becoming a United States Senator at 29, he formulated and championed the "American System" based on a protective tariff. He advocated aggression in the War of 1812 and was one of the commissioners who concluded the peace. Clay was Speaker of the House of Representatives, Senator, and Secretary of State, but he failed in his life's ambition to reach the Presidency.

2. CHURCH OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD (Episcopal), E. Main St. and Bell Court, neo-Gothic in style, dedicated in 1926, is known as the "Horseman's Church" because Bluegrass horsemen gave generously toward its building. In the interior are carvings by Gustav Lang, brother of Anton Lang, famous Christus in the Passion Play of Oberammergau.

3. The SENATOR POPE HOME (open by appointment), 326 Grosvenor Ave., a two-story red brick structure built soon after the War of 1812, is now an apartment house. The balcony above the deeply recessed, arched entrance is part of the original design, but the porches that flank it are of later date. John Pope, for whom the house was built, was United States Senator from Kentucky, 1807-13. At this house on July 3-4, 1819, he entertained President Monroe, Gen. Andrew Jackson, Gov. Isaac Shelby, and others.

One-armed Senator John Pope was a strong political opponent of Henry Clay. During one of their races for Congress, Clay approached an Irishman and asked him why he was going to vote for his opponent. The Irishman replied, "Och, Misther Clay, I have concluded to vote for the man who has but one arm to sthrust into the sthreasury."

4. The JOSEPH FICKLIN HOUSE (private), SW. corner High and S. Limestone Sts., is a plain red brick late Georgian Colonial house. Here in the 1820's lived Lexington's postmaster, Joseph Ficklin, and with him Jefferson Davis during the three years (1821-24) that he was a student at Transylvania University.

5. BOTHERUM (private), 341 Madison PL, was designed and built in the 1850's for Maj. Madison C. Johnson by architect John McMurtry. The trees on the lawn and a profusion of vines veil the Greek Revival one-story stone mansion. Massive stone steps lead up to the four entrances, one to a side. White Corinthian columns support low porticos on each fagade. A deep-sunken brick walk leads out from the north fagade to the property line, beyond which stands a giant ginkgo tree, sent from Japan to Henry Clay, who gave it to his friend. Major Johnson is said to have been the prototype for Col. Romulus Fields in James Lane Allen's story, Two Gentlemen of Kentucky.

6. LEXINGTON CEMETERY, W. Main St. at city limits, is the burial place of many of Lexington's illustrious men, including James Lane Allen, John C. Breckinridge, John Hunt Morgan, and Henry Clay. The HENRY CLAY MEMORIAL (1857) has a large square base from which rises a lone Corinthian column supporting a statue of Clay. The original, designed by Joel T. Hart and cast by John Hailey of Frankfort, was destroyed by lightning in 1903. The statue now in place, copied from the Hart design, is the work of Charles J. Mulligan. Within the base of the monument are the sarcophagi of Clay and his wife.

7. GLENDOWER or PRESTON PLACE (private), W. 2nd St. between Jefferson and Georgetown Sts., now a nurses' dormitory connected with St. Joseph's Hospital, was built early in the nineteenth century. Here Robert Wickliffe, Col. John Todd's son-in-law, entertained lavishly. After William Preston, aide on the staff of Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, and son-in-law of Wickliffe, became owner of the property, its reputation for hospitality was equaled only by that of Col. David Meade's La Chaumiere.

8. The MARY TODD LINCOLN HOME (open by appointment), 574 W. Main St., is the Georgian Colonial red brick house where Mary Todd lived as a child and at the time she married Abraham Lincoln. It is now a rooming house, and a grocery store occupies half of the first floor.

Mary Todd was born December 13, 1818, on West Short Street where the Roman Catholic parish house now stands. Her mother died when Mary was seven years old. An older sister, Elizabeth, married the son and namesake of Gov. Ninian Wirt Edwards, and moved to Springfield, Illinois. Completing her education in the private schools of Lexington, Mary went to live with Elizabeth, at whose home she met a young lawyer named Abraham Lincoln. They kept company, quarreled to the breaking point in 1840, married in 1842, and made Springfield their home. From Springfield Mary went to the White House. After Lincoln's assassination, she traveled about, and then sought sanctuary at the home of her sister Elizabeth, where she died in 1882. She was buried beside her husband in Springfield.

9. FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 174 N. Mill St., designed by Cincinnatus Shryock and completed in 1872, is the home of a church congregation organized in the late eighteenth century.

10. The THOMAS HART HOME (private), 193 N. Mill St., a twostory Georgian Colonial brick house, was built in 1794 for Thomas Hart, whose daughter, Lucretia, married Henry Clay here. The young couple lived in the attached house on North Hill Street until Ashland was ready for them. In this building lived John Bradford, editor of the Kentucky Gazette, John Hunt Morgan, Confederate leader (who also was married here), and Cassius M. Clay, the emancipationist. 11. HOPEMONT (open 10-5 weekdays; adm. 25 cents ), 201 N. Mill St., the John Hunt Morgan home, is a post-Colonial white-painted brick mansion built in 1811 by John Wesley Hunt, grandfather of John Hunt Morgan. House and grounds are about as they were on the day in 1861 when grandson Morgan rode away at the head of the Lexington Rifles to join the Confederate Army. An extensive Confederate museum has been installed in the home, filled with treasures of five generations of Hunts and Morgans.

The house is entered through a doorway capped with an elliptical fanlight and flanked by traceried side lights. Immediately within is the reception hall and the room that John H. Morgan used as a business office, which contains many of his personal belongings. To the rear of the reception hall is the dining room, off which a long living room looks out upon the flower garden.

Above stairs and below are Morgan family portraits and prints. In the basement are the kitchens, storerooms, and servants' quarters of slavery days, and in the rear of the main structure is a wing with additional living quarters for the household. Behind this wing are the carriage house and the stable where Morgan's Black Bess was kept. John Hunt Morgan (1825-1864), born in Huntsville, Alabama, grew up in Lexington. He saw service as a first lieutenant in the Mexican War, and in the War between the States became a Confederate general with a roving commission to hamper the southward advance of the Union Armies. Early in July 1863 he raided Indiana and Ohio, and on July 26 was captured near New Lisbon, Ohio. On November 27 he escaped from the penitentiary at Columbus, Ohio, rejoined the Armies of the South, took command in the department of southwestern Virginia, and later at Jonesboro, Georgia. On September 4, 1864, he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee. His grave is in Lexington Cemetery.

12. The BENJAMIN GRATZ HOME (private), 231 N. Mill St., is an excellent example of the late Georgian Colonial style. The exterior is distinguished by a fine hand-wrought iron railing on the entrance stoop and a wide arched doorway with paneled door, flanked by side lights, and surmounted by an elliptical fanlight of leaded glass. This house was built for Mrs. Mary G. Maton in 1806. In 1824 Benjamin Gratz, brother of Rebecca, came to Lexington from Philadelphia and bought the property. Members of the Gratz family have lived in this house continuously since that date. In the rear, abutting a side street, stands what is said to be the OLDEST BRICK BUILDING in Lexington, used as a laundry for the household.

13. TRANSYLVANIA COLLEGE, W. 3rd St. between Upper St. and Broadway, with an enrollment of 500 students, is maintained by the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Its several red brick ivycovered buildings and Greek Revival Morrison College are distributed over a small campus.

Transylvania College, oldest educational institution west of the Alleghenies, grew out of an act of the Virginia Legislature of 1780 setting aside 8,000 acres of confiscated Tory land in Kentucky for the development of higher education. Twelve thousand acres were added in 1783, and in 1785 Transylvania Seminary was opened in the home of "Old Father Rice," near Danville. Three years later this seminary was removed to Lexington, where the first building was erected in 1794. Following a dispute over doctrinal matters, Presbyterians on the board seceded and set up a school known as Kentucky Academy at Pisgah, 11 miles west of Lexington. In 1798 Transylvania Academy and Kentucky Academy were merged as Transylvania University. Transylvania took high rank among early educational institutions.

In its Law College, where Henry Clay was a professor (1805-07), were trained many of the early leaders of the legal and political life of the West. Dr. Samuel Brown, pioneer in smallpox vaccination, founded the College of Medicine (1799), which in its first 60 years graduated more than 2,000 physicians. Affiliated with Transylvania is the College of the Bible, a post-graduate theological school. MORRISON COLLEGE is a Greek Revival brick building designed by the Lexington architect Gideon Shryock and completed in 1833. The three-story structure has a massive two-story Doric portico with fluted columns, approached by a broad flight of steps. In one of the vaults flanking the steps are the remains of Constantine Rafinesque. Born in Turkey, of French and German descent, Rafinesque settled in America in 1815. He was one of the strangest and most brilliant figures of the middle frontier, an authority on natural history, especially botany, shells, fishes, banking and political history. At Transylvania he was professor of modern languages, practically founding that subject in America, and was possibly the first to give illustrated lectures. In 1824 he published Ancient History: or Annals of Kentucky, and his later works on American flora were authoritative for their day. Traversing the wilderness hunting specimens, bearded and oddly clad, with a pack on his back, he was often taken by the natives for an itinerant peddler, and many pranks were played on him by John James Audubon and other wilderness men. The LIBRARY (open 8-4 Mon.- Fri., 8-12:15 Sat.) was long rated one of the best in the United States. Its collection of medical books is especially notable. RUSH MUSEUM (open by appointment) has good collections of bird specimens and classroom apparatus used a century ago in natural science classes.

14. LEXINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 8:30-9 weekdays; 2-6 Sun.), W. 2nd St. between Market and N. Mill Sts., was organized in 1795 as a pay library endowed by annual subscriptions, and is the oldest circulating library west of the Alleghenies. In 1903 Andrew Carnegie gave $60,000 toward the construction of the present building. The library has numerous volumes on the history of Lexington and the Bluegrass, and a file of rare newspapers, including issues of the old Kentucky Gazette.

On the second floor, at the head of the stairs, is a case containing a collection of coins, State money, "shinplasters," and other early curios; and in another is a collection of stuffed Bluegrass song birds, among them the Kentucky cardinal, "redbird" of the South. 15. The BODLEY HOUSE (private), 200 Market St., an old post- Colonial house once the property of Col. Thomas Bodley, War of 1812 veteran, was built soon after that war. During the War between the States this home was a headquarters for Union troops, and Dr. Benjamin Winslow Dudley, surgeon and Transylvania professor, owned it for a time.

16. CHRIST CHURCH (Episcopal), NE. corner Church and Market Sts., a Victorian Gothic structure designed by Maj. T. Lewinski, stands on a site occupied by Episcopal churches since 1796. The cornerstone of the present brick building was laid in 1847. The chimes in the tower were given by Mrs. Rosa Johnson Rhett in memory of her mother, Rose Vertner Jeffrey, Bluegrass poetess.

17. COURTHOUSE SQUARE, W. Main St. between Upper St. and Cheapside, is in the center of downtown Lexington. Within the parklike area stands FAYETTE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a massive three-story stone building designed in the Romanesque style, surmounted by a dome above which swings the golden stallion weather vane. On the east lawn of the square is the equestrian STATUE OF JOHN HUNT MORGAN, showing him sitting in full uniform upon his charger. Among the names on the plaque of the SOLDIER'S MEMORIAL, World War monument before the Main Street entrance, is that of a woman, Curry Desha Brickinridge, Red Cross nurse. On the west side of the square in CHEAPSIDE PARK is the BRECKINRIDGE STATUE, erected by the State of Kentucky in memory of John Cabell Breckinridge (1821- 1875), Lexington lawyer who at 30 was elected U.S. Representative, and at 35, Vice President of the United States. At the Baltimore Convention of 1860 he was nominated for the Presidency by pro-slavery seceders from the convention. With the outbreak of the War between the States, Breckinridge joined the Confederate army, was put in command of the Kentucky Brigade under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, and in January 1865 became Confederate Secretary of War.

Throughout the years Cheapside has been an open-air forum where men with causes, or no causes at all, air their opinions. Statesmen and office seekers harangue the passing crowd. The strolling ballad singer finds a sympathetic audience. An occasional group of worshipers gather about the fountains for prayer and praise. Perched on the base of the Breckinridge Memorial, a lanky religious exhorter sometimes tells his little circle of listeners about death and judgment to come. 18. The TOBACCO MARKETS (open from first Mon. in Dec. until

about March 1) are held in southwestern Lexington, in the heart of the tobacco warehousing district. Here, in 26 handling houses, called "sales floors," the "brown gold" crop of the Bluegrass is sold. Several times during each winter these sales floors are cleared, filled with new deliveries from the farms, and cleared again, until the last of the crop has moved on to processors.

The tobacco, known to the farmer and the tobacco merchant simply as "white burley," comes to the sales floor cured and graded by the farmer. His entire crop is arranged, according to quality, in baskets upon each of which an agent of the warehouse has placed a starting bid. Down the narrow aisle between the high-piled baskets pass auctioneer, bidders, and gallery. The auctioneer, sing-songing a sales jargon, unintelligible to the visitor, tries to drum up the bid. The jew's-harp chant goes on continually, interrupted only by a nod, a wink, or a word spoken by competing buyers. An unsatisfactory bid can be rejected by the owner, whose lot is then held for a subsequent sale. Close on the heels of the main actors shuffles the gallery, straining forward to catch every shift in the action, for upon these sales depends the good or ill fortune of the year.

19. The TROTTING TRACK (1873), S. on Broadway in the rear of Tattersall's Sales Stables, is the mile oval of the Kentucky Trotting Horse Breeders' Association. Spring and fall meets on the Grand Circuit are held here on what horsemen believe to be the fastest trotting strip in the world. Twenty American trotting and pacing records have been made on this track. In 1937, Alma Sheppard, 11 years old, drove Dean Hanover over the track in 1:58cents . This horse was given to the girl by her father, when no one else seemed to be able to do anything with him. She trained him herself, entered him in the race, and set one of the track records, only 2*/2 seconds from the world's record. Other records made on this track include the fastest three heats, by Rosaline in 1937; trotting record with mate against time, Uhlan ( 1:541/2) 1913; trotting record by team, Uhlan and Louis Forest, 1912. One of the two world records broken in 1938 was the mile pacing time of Dan Patch in 1905, shattered by Billy Direct (1:55).

20. UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY (buildings open daily except Sun. and holidays), S. Limestone St. and Euclid Ave., was established in 1866 as a land-grant college (following the passage of the Morrill Act in 1862) and became part of Kentucky University, formerly Transylvania University. The Agricultural and Mechanical divisions were located on the Henry Clay farm, Ashland, but due to unfavorable financial arrangements the Agricultural and Mechanical college was transferred to its present location, and completely separated from Kentucky University. The university has been on its present 94-acre campus since 1878.

The plant, excluding the experimental farm, consists of forty-eight buildings located somewhat at random on the campus. On the left of the north gate entrance is the NEW STUDENT UNION BUILDING, which houses all the offices of the student activities, the ball and assembly rooms, the cafeteria and other shops. Beyond and immediately to the left is FRAZEE HALL in which are the departments of Sociology, Philosophy, History, and University Extension.

The oldest classroom building now in use is the classic revival ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, at the top of the hill facing the parade ground and Limestone Street, which houses the administrative offices. East of the Administration Building are the Archeological Museum (Old Library), the Faculty Club (Patterson home), Lafferty Hall, and the Library. The Faculty Club building is typical of the homes built in Kentucky during the latter part of the nineteenth century. Lafferty Hall is modern in design and typifies the plan of the buildings which have been constructed since 1935. The LIBRARY, the first unit of which has been completed, was constructed in 1931 and is Georgian in design. It houses the university's collection of approximately 270,000 books and pamphlets. This is the largest and most complete library collection in the State.

East of the Library is MAXWELL PLACE, the home of the President of the university. The house, Italian Renaissance in design, was formerly the home of James Hilary Mulligan. West of the library is a hall which houses the State department of Mines and Geology, and the university department of Botany. To the south beyond the library are the Physics and Chemistry buildings. Across the open court to the south is McVey Hall, a classroom building. At the end of the quadrangle is the new 1939 Biological Science Building.

West of McVey Hall in the center of the large commons is the MEMORIAL HALL, of Greek Revival design with a Christopher Wren tower. The building was erected by public subscription as a memorial to Kentucky's World War dead. On the left and right of the foyer are memorial plaques and on the wall facing the entrance is a large mural depicting the growth of the State. The auditorium seats eleven hundred. Immediately west of Memorial Hall is the College of Agriculture Building.

North of Memorial Hall is the Engineering College quadrangle. Directly west of the quadrangle is Neville Hall and farther west, facing the front circular drive, is the building which houses the university dispensary and the classrooms of the department of Hygiene. To the north and rear of Neville Hall is the Natural Science Building, which houses the geological library and exhibits. West of the Administration Building, across Limestone and Upper Streets, is the College of Education and Associated Schools, a Greek Revival building of three units. East on Euclid from its intersection with Limestone are other buildings of the university.

Across Graham Avenue to the south are some of the experimental buildings of the College of Agriculture, and at Graham Avenue and Limestone Street is the Agricultural Experiment Station with its laboratories and offices. The UNIVERSITY FARM of 620 acres is on the east side of Rose Street beginning at Graham Avenue.

The university is composed of seven colleges, the Experiment Station, and the Department of University Extension. The enrollment is approximately 3,700 and about 2,000 students attend the summer sessions. The Experiment Station has associated with it the sub-station of 15,000 acres at Quicksand, and the sub-station of 600 acres at Princeton.

21. "LEXINGTON'S WESTMINSTER ABBEY," E. 3rd St. between Walnut and Deweese Sts., is a local name for several old cemeteries dating from the years immediately after the 1833 cholera epidemic. Within this area lie members of the Bradford family; John Grimes, the artist whose portrait by Jouett hangs in the Metropolitan Art Museum; John Postlethwait, early innkeeper; and many other oldtime residents. The SEXTON'S COTTAGE, designed by John McMurtry, is an excellent example of a Tudor cottage. The little GREEK TEMPLE was erected by Gideon Shryock as a memorial to his parents.

22. The WILLIAM MORTON HOME (Duncan Park Day Nursery), NE. corner N. Limestone and 5th Sts., was built and furnished on a lavish scale in 1810 by William ("Lord") Morton, younger son of a titled English family. After the death of "Lord" Morton in 1836, the place became the home of Cassius M. Clay.

23. LOUDOUN (open 8:30-5:30 weekdays)cents Bryan Ave. and Castlewood Dr., now the city's Castlewood Community Center, was erected in 1850 by Francis K. Hunt, son of a pioneer Lexington industrialist. Architect John McMurtry designed the building in the Gothic Revival style, and embellished it with pointed-arch windows, a battlemented turret, hand-carved woodwork, and Jacobean chimneys. 24. SAYRE COLLEGE (open weekdays on request, during school year), 194 N. Limestone St., preparatory school dating from 1854, was among the first schools in America to offer women a full college curriculum. It is housed in three red brick buildings, each three stories high.

In the basement of Sayre is BARLOW PLANETARIUM, invented in 1844 by Thomas Harris Barlow of Lexington. Designed to illustrate the activity of the solar system, this invention so simplified the teaching of astronomy that 300 like it were manufactured and sold to the United States Government, public institutions, and colleges throughout the world. Only a few are still in use.

25. WHITEHALL (private), NE. corner Limestone and Barr Sts., a two-story white brick structure in the Greek Revival style, designed by Gideon Shryock and built 1834-36 for the Wear family, stands well back from Limestone Street. Here in the 1850's lived Thomas Marshall, a descendant of Chief Justice John Marshall.

26. ROSE HILL (private), 461 N. Limestone St., a low, rambling Georgian Colonial structure, was built in 1818 by John Brand, hemp manufacturer. The entrance is copied after that of the Temple of Minerva in the Maison Carree of Nimes, France.

27. PHOENIX HOTEL, 120 E. Main St., stands on the SITE OF POSTLETHWAIT'S TAVERN. In the lobby hang pictures of great Kentucky thoroughbreds. The dining room behind the lobby is finished in early English tavern style. The coffee shop displays medallions of prominent Kentuckians.

In 1790 Capt. John Postlethwait, Revolutionary officer, came to Lexington and for 43 years put his finger into every Lexington pie. He was trader, merchant, innkeeper, and generous citizen. His first tavern was built in 1797. He gathered the horsemen of his time about the huge fireplace of his tavern, and talked up the breeding of light horses. The tavern caught fire twice, and thenceforward the name Phoenix was attached to the hotel. The old section of the present structure dates from the third fire, which occurred during a race in 1879.

HORSE FARM TOUR 1

Lexington to Lexington, 22.5 m.; US 60 (Winchester Pike), Hume Rd., Bryan Station Pike, Johnston Rd., US 27-68 (Paris Pike), Ironworks Pike, Newtown Pike.

Hard-surfaced throughout.

Horse Farms on this route open to public; permission to visit stables must be obtained at farm offices. Visitors are required to refrain from smoking and to shut all gates that they open. Many of the gates are of the patent type that can be opened and shut from motor cars. Numbers in parentheses correspond with numbers on Horse Farm Tour map.

East on US 60 from the Zero Milestone, at the corner of Main St. and Union Station Viaduct on Walnut St., to Midland St. ; L. on Midland St. to 3rd St., here called Winchester Pike.

The entrance to (28) PATCHEN WILKES STOCK FARM (L), is at 3.2 m. (open 9-4 on request). This once busy horse place, now devoted to the raising of cattle and sheep, was owned a century and more ago by Capt. Benjamin Warfield on land granted to the Warfield family by the colony of Virginia before the Revolution. Prior to 1825 he built the one-story brick house with rooms opening on a porch enclosing three sides of a flower-bordered rear court. The white house, sheltered by a grove of trees, the large barn and other buildings are in a striking position on the brow and crest of two sweeping slopes half a mile from the highway. For years the horse farm was operated by W. E. D. Stokes, of New York.

The farm was named for the blooded sire, Patchen Wilkes. Peter the Great, purchased as a nine-year-old stallion with a track record of 2:07cents , having stood here for more than a decade, sold at the age of 21 for $50,000.

At 3.6 m. is the entrance to (29) HAMBURG PLACE (R), acquired in 1897 by John E. Madden, and since owned and operated by his son J. E. Madden, Jr. The estate, consisting of approximately 2,700 acres and extending several miles along the highway, was named for Hamburg, a great thoroughbred, which, after being successfully campaigned 30 years ago, stood after his retirement with pronounced success. Since 1929 Hamburg Place has been important for the breeding of polo ponies.

At Hamburg Place have been foaled and bred six Kentucky Derby winners the largest number to come from any one nursery. Plaudit, the first of these, won the Kentucky Derby of 1898 in what was then the creditable time of 2:09.

Behind the unpretentious green-trimmed white frame residence is the old-fashioned barn in which were foaled and bred the other five Kentucky Derby winners. Old Rosebud, the second Madden Derby winner, after establishing a reputation when a two-year-old, went to the post in the 1914 Derby as a favorite and ran the distance handily in 2:03%, a new track record. Old Rosebud was a frequent winner in high class company after taking the purse at Churchill Downs, until, as an aged horse, patched up and returned to the turf following a breakdown, he met with a fatal accident during a race in the East. Sir Barton, winner of the Kentucky Derby in 1919, was the last of the great Star Shoots and the only maiden performer ever to win this stake. Although Sir Barton's time was slow (2:09%) due to an off track, he demonstrated his class later in the month by winning the Preakness in Maryland. Paul Jones, a fine mudder, won the Kentucky Derby in 1920 over a heavy track (2:09). Zev, the fifth Derby winner, was by the successful Madden sire, The Finn, from the good race mare, Miss Kearney. Zev, possessed of a high flight of speed, was also a superior mud runner. For the Derby of 1923 he turned in the fair time of 2:05%. Zev defeated the great English colt, Papyrus, in their $100,000 match race in the East in 1924, and In Memoriam at Churchill Downs later. Flying Ebony, another son of The Finn also ridden to victory by the much-publicized jockey, Earle Sande, won the Kentucky Derby of 1925 over a sloppy track in 2:07%. The stables of Hamburg Place are empty except in winter when polo ponies are quartered here.

NANCY HANKS HORSE GRAVEYARD (30) 4.1 m. (R), surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped field-stone fence, is the burial ground of a dozen horses that made John E. Madden famous as a breeder. Nancy Hanks, considered one of the greatest trotters that ever lived, is buried in the center of the plot. A stone monument, topped with a miniature statue of the great mare, stands over her grave. Eleven other noted harness horses and thoroughbreds are buried in a semicircle around the Nancy Hanks monument. Of these Plaudit is perhaps the best remembered. The others are Hamburg Belle, noted trotting mare, Ida Pickwick, Imp. Star Shoot, famed mostly as a successful sire of brood mares, Lady Starling, Ogden, Major Delmar, Siliko, Silikon, and Imp.

At 4.5 m. is the junction with Hume Rd. The main route of the tour turns L. here.

Right (straight ahead) on US 60, 0.6 m. to (31) the IROQUOIS HUNT AND POLO CLUB (open May or June to September 1) entered (R) through iron gates bearing silhouetted figures of polo players. The landscaped grounds of the club include four polo fields one for exhibition matches, another as a practice field for men, a third for women, and the fourth field for children. Polo ponies are drawn from the best blooded and mixed stock obtainable, using sires and dams of all three light horse breeds. Nimble, intelligent native mares, bred to thoroughbred, trotter, or saddle horse sires, produce a high proportion of colts having the desired qualities, and Western ponies have been crossed upon thoroughbreds. Polo ponies range in weight up to 1,400 pounds, and the qualities demanded are good bone, intelligence, quick action, and sure-footedness. Matches, open to the public, are frequently played here.

Left on Hume Rd., at 7 m. is the junction with Bryan Station Pike; R. on Bryan Station Pike to the junction with Johnston Rd., 9.3 m.; L. on Johnston Rd.

On Johnston Rd. is (32) (L) LLANGOLLEN (Welsh, pronounced Thlangothlen), 10 .3 m., which has a color motif of white trimmed in black. This 273-acre farm, owned by John Hay Whitney, is one of the three Whitney horse farms in the Bluegrass. At the head of this stud for seven years was Imp. Royal Minstrel, a gray, many of whose get are of that color. This horse, returned to England in the latter part of 1938, was campaigned in America and is said to have won more for his American owner than his purchase price of $75,000. His victories on English courses include the Eclipse, Craven, Cork and Orrery Stakes, and the Victoria Cup. Here also is standing the Bonnie Scotland thoroughbred, The Porter. This horse, a small chestnut and a superior performer in "sloppy" going, was owned when in training and for some time after his retirement by E. B. McLean of Washington. Somewhat like Ferdinand the Bull, The Porter, a dignified old gentleman, is fascinated by butterflies, but despises dogs, cats, and roosters. It is estimated that his get have won more than $1,350,000. The Porter sired Toro, a bay from Imp. Brocatelle, in 1925, who as a three-year-old was just about the shiftiest of his age. Although Toro's turf career was short his winnings amounted to $142,530.

Johnston Rd. runs to a dead end at its junction, 10.8 m., with US 27-68, which is here called the Paris Pike. Right on US 27-68. The C. V. WHITNEY FARM (33) 11A m. (open 11-4, February- June 20: no specific hours at other times), its yellow buildings (R) forming a striking contrast with the green landscaped grounds, is entered from the Paris Pike. The 900-acre estate has 11 well-built and ventilated barns including three for stallions (one of them floored with cork), a two-story frame cottage, and a two-story stone farm office building (L), and a one-mile training course. About a mile from the entrance, in a wooded area near one of the stallion barns, is the cemetery where Broomstick, Peter Pan, Whiskbroom II, Prudery, Regretonly filly ever to win the Kentucky Derby Pennant, and the great Equipoise (d. 1938) are buried.

Broomstick, favorite stock horse of James (Jimmy) Rowe, head trainer for so many years for Harry Payne Whitney, was a consistent winner regardless of the fields in which he competed. Through his sire, Ben Brush, he came of the hardy Bonnie Scotland line. Broomstick headed the stud founded by William C. Whitney, and, among a goodly number of superior performers, he sired Regret, Dam, Jersey Lightning, by Hamburg. In the Kentucky Derby, over a track thought to have been fully a second and a half on the slow side, he won easily by two open lengths over Pebbles in 2:05%. Whiskbroom II, a chestnut foaled in 1907 by Broomstick-Audience, could run fast and far, even under high imposts. Among the successful performers sired by him is the Kentucky Derby winner, Whiskery. Prudery, a filly rated good enough to be started in the Kentucky Derby (1921), finished third to the Bradley pair, Behave Yourself and Black Servant. Prudery, by Peter Pan-Polly Flinders, was a fine race mare, and in the stud she produced Victorian and Whiskery, winners respectively of $253,425 and $103,565. Peter Pan, by Commando-Imp. Cinderella, was owned and raced by James R. Keene. A son of one of America's truly great horses, Peter Pan, a fine performer and a stock horse of more than usual merit, won above $100,000, and among his get were Pennant, sire of Equipoise, outstanding performer of recent years, and the noted race and brood mare, Prudery. Pennant, best remembered as the sire of Equipoise, was a good thoroughbred race horse.

Equipoise, by Pennant-Swinging, one of those thoroughbreds that breeders, large and small, live from year to year in the hope of producing, was one of the outstanding performers of all time. Campaigned by C. V. Whitney, he was retired in 1937 and put at stud after winning stakes and purses of $300,000 or more. Only Sun Beau, W. S. Kilmer's champion handicapper, with winnings of $338,610, has exceeded those of Equipoise. A brown chunk of a horse, on the small side, Equipoise completed his two-year season by finishing an eyelash behind Twenty Grand in the Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes at one mile, in time that broke the record for horses of his age at the distance, under scale weight. He was handicapped by a bad hoof, and failed to train for the Kentucky Derby of 1931. He died unexpectedly from an intestinal ailment after standing little more than a year.

Chicle, of fashionable blood line (Spearmint-Lady Hamburg) foaled in 1913, has sired horses that have won more than a million dollars. At stud here are such excellent performers during their days on the turf as Peace Chance, one of the fastest running horses America has produced, Halcyon, Whichone, and Firethorn, a good thoroughbred race horse (by Imp. Sun-Briar-Baton Rouge) campaigned actively since 1935.

Peace Chance, a bay by Chance Shot-Peace, was foaled in 1931. Although his career was shortened by a leg ailment, his winnings amounted to almost $50,000. Possessed of blinding speed and a stout heart, this young stallion promises to be a successful stock horse. Halcyon, a bay foaled in 1928, is by Broomstick, from Prudery, both of which are dead. Halcyon, a shifty performer in good company and now at stud on the C. V. Whitney farm, has the making of an excellent stock horse, and choice mares are being sent to his court. Whichone, one of the fastest two-year-olds of record, is a bay horse, by Chick- Flying Witch, foaled in 1927. Although he went amiss early and was retired, his winnings amounted to $192,705, most of it earned during his first season on the turf.

At 11.5 m. is the junction with the Ironworks Pike. The main tour route turns left on Ironworks Pike.

Right (straight ahead) on US 27-68, 0.2 m. to (34) ELMENDORF (L) (open 8-4 weekdays), owned by Joseph E. Widener. This 1,300-acre estate, through which North Elkhorn meanders, has a natural beauty enhanced by landscaping. Four Corinthian columns and two marble lions on a hilltop are all that remain of the marble palace built in 1897-1900 by James B. Haggin, copper magnate, for his bride. The house was razed in 1929 to avoid payment of taxes on so costly a building. Mr. Haggin built up an estate of 13,000 acres from the original 564 acres, which he acquired in 1891.

Among the many barns at Elmendorf the red brick Norman French barn (L) is the most striking, its slate roof decorated with models of animals and birds. Above it rises a two-story tower with a clock from Normandy and a bell that strikes every half-hour. Another barn is in two parts with the 30 stalls facing an enclosed oval tanbark track. Among the thoroughbreds housed here are Brevity, Chance Shot, son of Fair Play, dam, Imp. Quelle Chance, Imp. Sickle, and Haste.

Brevity, a bay by Chance Shot, or Imp. Sickle, dam, Imp. Ormando, was the best of the 1935 two-year-olds, and his brilliant performances at that age were followed by an equally impressive race or two at Miami the following winter. He came north to fulfill his engagement in the Kentucky Derby of 1936, the oddson favorite in a smart field. Knocked to his knees at the start, he got away tenth in a field of fourteen, and worked his way up to finish a head behind Bold Venture, the winner. He went amiss in his three-year-old season, and has since been at stud. Chance Shot, a bay foaled in 1924, has been a consistent sire of winners, among them no less a performer than Peace Chance, turf winner of $142,277. Imp. Sickle, an English thoroughbred by Phalaris-Selene, she by Chaucer, is a brown foaled in 1924 and imported for breeding purposes. A prolific sire, he has sent to the races such performers as Brevity, Stagehand, Reaping Reward, and others of stakes caliber. Haste, a bay thoroughbred by Imp. Maintenant-Miss Malaprop, foaled in 1923, was an excellent performer and has sired a number of good horses, usually with high flight of speed and ability to excel over muddy going. As a two-year-old he won the Saratoga Special and the Grand Winner Hotel Stakes, and at three years old the Withers and Fairmount Derby.

In the Elmendorf cemetery is a large bronze statue of Fair Play which, even as an aged stallion in 1919, brought $100,000. Fair Play, by Hastings-Fairy Gold, sired Man o' War. In front of the statue are the graves of Fair Play and of Mahubah, dam of Man o' War, with huge gravestones bearing wreaths. Mahubah, by Imp. Rock Sand, was the dam of Fair Play's greatest sons, the peerless Man o' War, often called a super-horse, and of My Play, a pronounced success on the turf and at stud.

The Paris Pike (US 27-68) continues to (35) GREENTREE (R), 0.6 m., a 750-acre breeding farm owned by Mrs. Payne Whitney. The Whitney colors, white and black, are used on buildings that dot the estate and on fences that divide the farm into fields and paddocks.

Mrs. Whitney's Imp. St. Germans, a French horse foaled in 1921, spends the sunset of his life in a pasture all his own with his companions, Lum and Abner, two bewhiskered goats. St. Germans is the sire of Twenty Grand, holder of the record (2:01%) for the Kentucky Derby (1931) and the Churchill Downs threeyear- old record for that distance. Twenty Grand in 1930 also set the record (1:36%) of the Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes, a one-mile race for two-year-olds run in the fall. St. Germans also sired St. Brideaux, and -Bold Venture, winner (1936) of the Kentucky Derby (2:03%) and of (1936) the Preakness (1:59). Also at stud here is Questionnaire, by King-Miss Puzzle, foaled in 1927.

Left from US 27-68 on Ironworks Pike, now the main route. At 13A m. is the junction with the George Widener farm road. Right on the Widener road; at 0.1 m. is back entrance (L) of (36) DIXIANA FARM, one of the showplaces of the Bluegrass, owned by Charles T. Fisher, manufacturer of motor car "bodies by Fisher," who acquired it after the death of James Cox Brady (1882-1928) of New York. The 1,100-acre estate is a prominent Kentucky nursery, known at a much earlier date as the Hamilton Stud, and was once part of the 13,000-acre estate of James B. Haggin. Maj. B. G. Thomas, who once owned it, named the place Dixiana in 1877 in honor of his favorite brood mare. Mr. Fisher has a fine stable of running horses. In addition to numerous modern barns, the farm has an excellent one-mile training track.

Sweep All, Peter Hastings (sold), and High Time (dead) lived in the small barn (R) near the office. The stable hands insist that when any performer sired by High Time was winning a race, he sensed it and kicked and "raised sand." Sweep All, Peter Hastings, and High Time were all excellent performers on the turf but their fame rests chiefly upon their value at stud. High Time was for years a steady producer of winners, among them the great gelding, Sarazon, one of the fastest thoroughbreds that ever came up, and the American which defeated Epinard, leading French performer of his day. Mata Hari, a filly adjudged smart enough to be sent in the Kentucky Derby of her year (1934) is one of the leading brood mares at Dixiana. Near by are the large barns where 24 American Standard Bred horses, each a familiar figure among the winners of its class in the show rings, lived until 1938, when the stables were broken up.

At 1.2 m. is the junction with Russell Cave Pike; L. on this road. On Russell Cave Pike opposite the Junction is (37) MT. BRILLIANT (private), a two-story brick mansion built in 1792, home of Louis Lee Haggin. The wide veranda is noteworthy for its four massive Doric columns. Left from the Dixiana front entrance on Russell Cave Pike to a junction with Huffman Mill Pike, 1.8 m. Right on Huffman Mill Pike 3.3 m. to (38) FARAWAY FARM (R) (open 7:30-4:00), owned by Samuel Riddle. This is the home of Man o' War (1917- ), greatest thoroughbred race horse of his day and by some authorities ranked the greatest native performer of all time in this country. Man o' War was by Fair Play, dam Mahubah. Bred by August Belmont, he was put for sale as a yearling at the annual Saratoga auction and bid in by Mr. Riddle for $5,000. As a performer, he was started 21 times and won 19 stakes and purses and the match race at Windsor, Ontario, in 1920 against Sir Barton. Man o' War is a strapping fellow, in color a dark chestnut. He was not raced after completion of his season as a three-year-old. Insured for $500,000, he was put at stud on Mr. Riddle's estate, where he is constantly under guard. Man o' War has sired 236 horses (November 1938) and of these 176 have been winners. Around $2,500,000 has been won by his get, and the great sire took approximately $250,000 on the turf, in only two seasons at a time when purses were not so large as today.

American Flag, at stud here, is one of the several high class thoroughbred race horses sired by Man o' War. He was campaigned in the East, where he won a substantial sum in stakes and purses. War Admiral, foaled and bred here, is, perhaps, the greatest son of Man o' War. Lightly campaigned and running not a little green as a two-year-old, he became the recognized champion of the threeyear- olds (1937), when he joined the select circle whose few members have won in succession the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness, and the Belmont. In winning the Belmont, he shaded his sire's time. War Admiral, a five-year-old in 1939, was retired after fulfilling a final engagement in November 1938. Russell Cave Pike continues southward from its junction with Huffman Mill Rd. to the junction with the Ironworks Pike, 2.4 m.

The Ironworks Pike continues northwestward (straight ahead) from the junction with the Widener farm road, crossing Russell Cave Pike, at 13A m., the junction with the side tour to the home of Man o' War. Northwest of the junction with Russell Cave Pike, the Ironworks Pike passes the entrance (R), 152 m., to (39) CASTLETON, 1,132 acres, owned by David M. Look. This was once the estate of the Castleman family, which earlier was known as Cabell's Dale, home of John Breckinridge (1760-1806), sponsor of the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798-99, and U.S. Senator from Kentucky, 1801-05. Breckinridge left the Senate to become Attorney General of the United States and died in office.

Beyond the two-story, green-shuttered, white brick house, built in 1806, is a large yellow barn occupied by Standard Bred horses, and in a building near by are the stables of Castleton's stallions: Guy Castleton, Spencer, Rutherford, Schuyler, Lee Tide, and Moran. Among the great winners foaled and bred at Castleton were Colin, Domino, Commando, Peter Pan, Pennant, and numerous others. Colin, a brown by Commando-Imp. Postorella foaled in 1905, raced in the colors of James R. Keene, and, although there were some shifty horses in his day, none ever got near him. He was retired, an unbeaten winner of $181,610. At stud Colin failed to measure up to expectations. Domino, also a brown, by Himyar-Mannie Gray, was foaled in 1891. During his brief career on the turf, his winnings totaled $193,550. The Negro who proudly exhibits the horses to visitors sometimes sleeps in the barn. He is roused promptly at 4 A.M. by a disturbing clatter. The culprit is a spotted pony, rattling his empty bucket until breakfast is served. At 15.8 m. on Ironworks Pike is a junction with the Newtown Pike. Right on Newtown Pike to (40) the WALNUT HALL STOCK FARM (L), 0.9 m.; L. through the farm. This estate of 3,500 acres, having the appearance of a large well-kept park, is one of the world's foremost trotting horse nurseries. The farm, established in 1892 by Lamon V. Harkness of Pittsburgh, is owned by Dr. Ogden M. Edwards. Near the large Colonial-style yellow brick residence (Walnut Hall) stands the main barn. Peter Volo, which died in 1937 at the ripe age of 25, was at stud here. His son Protector, sold for $1,200 and later repurchased for $25,000, heads the stud. Volomite and Guy Abbey are also on this farm. On the morning of a race, when the stable routine is changed, the horses, like those in other racing stables, become very restless. In the cemetery, where 11 famous horses are buried, is a life-size statue of Guy Axworthy. The Walnut Hall Farm road turns L. and reaches a junction with the Ironworks Pike, 3.4 m. Left on Ironworks Pike.

At 4.3 m. is (41) SPINDLETOP (R), owned by Mrs. M. F. Yount, with 826 acres of almost treeless land. The palatial residence was built in 1936. The stable houses some beautiful American saddle horses, among them Beau Peavine and Chief of Spindletop. The latter was one of the winners of the $10,000 award annually offered by the Kentucky State Fair for championship form in the three- and five-gaited classes. These two sires are Standard Bred American Saddle Horses, perhaps the most notable breed of its kind of purely American origin. These horses are bred for gaits and action from beautiful and enduring foundation stock.

Southeast of the entrance to Spindletop, Ironworks Pike reaches its junction, 52 m., with Newtown Pike, the point at which the loop to Walnut Hall Farm and Spindletop started.

The main route turns L. from Ironworks Pike on Newtown Pike. On the Newtown Pike is COLDSTREAM STUD (42), 18.5 m., bordered by a limestone wall four miles long. The 1,8 5 5 -acre estate (R) has been owned since 1915 by C. B. Shaffer. The main barn remodeled from a dairy, contains 32 stalls for thoroughbreds, including Bull Dog, sire of many winning performers. There is a tradition that Price Mc- Grath, the first owner, hid a fortune in the walls of the barn, but search has not revealed it.

Newtown Pike continues south to a junction with Main St. in Lexington; L. on Main St. to the Zero Milestone, 22.5 m.

HORSE FARM TOUR 2

Lexington to Lexington, 18 m.; US 60, Rice Pike, Elkchester Pike, Old Frankfort Pike.

Four-lane concrete highway to Rice Pike; asphalt roads from Rice Pike into Lexington.

West on US 60 from Zero Milestone (Main and Walnut Sts. at the Union Station Viaduct) on Main St. to Jefferson St.; L. on Jefferson St. over Viaduct to W. High St.; R. on W. High St., which becomes Versailles Pike (US 60).

On US 60 is (R) CALUMET FARM (43), 4.7 m. (visiting hours 9-4 throughout year), originally known as Fairland when owned by Joseph W. Bailey, Senator from Texas. Calumet Farm was the home of W. M. Wright, whose fortune was made in Calumet baking powder. It is now (1939) owned by his son, Warren Wright of Chicago. Calumet is important as a stud, with such successful younger sires as Hadagal, Bostonian, and Chance Play. Hadagal, a bay by Imp. Sir Galahad III out of Imp. Erne, foaled in 1931 was a stakes winner at two, and as a three-year-old broke the track record to win the Governor Green handicap at 1cents miles. Bostonian, a black by Broomstick- Yankee Maid, was foaled in 1924. He was raced only two seasons, yet won a number of stakes, including the Preakness. Chance Play, a chestnut horse by Fair Play-Imp. Quelle Chance and a half brother to Man o' War, was foaled in 1923. His winnings totaled nearly $138,000 and among his get are such sterling performers as At Play, Grand Slam, Good Gamble, and Psychic Bid. Galsum, a gelding, Nellie Flag, a filly, and Nellie Morse, dam of Nellie Flag and Count Morse, are also housed at Calumet. Nellie Morse, filly winner of the Preakness, was campaigned by Bud Fisher, creator of Mutt and Jeff. The 1,000-acre Calumet Farm, its color motif white and red, was purchased by the senior Wright in 1924 in the hope of breeding a winner of the Hambletonian the most desired stake in the harness horse field. He won this stake in 1931. The air-conditioned stallion barn with classic portico and turret has a cork floor and handsome woodwork. Behind the barn is an outdoor track. There is an estate house, 18 barns, and cottages for employees. In November 1938, there were three stallions, 65 mares, and 30 weanlings in the stables.

KEENELAND RACE COURSE (44), on US 60 at 6.4 m. (R), held its inaugural meeting in 1936. This track, which supplants Lexington's century-old Association Course, is patterned after the great English race courses where the chief considerations are the sport of racing and the improvement of thoroughbred stock. The grandstand seats 2,500 people. The l% 6 -mile oval track here is considered one of the fastest in America. In the three-story stone clubhouse are photographic murals by the best photographers of the Bluegrass, in the stag-room, on the second floor, are Currier and Ives lithographs of events on the tracks. The offices and facilities of Keeneland, including pari-mutuel wagering, a restaurant, bars, and private dining rooms, are all in the clubhouse. There is a Currier lithograph of Lexington, the great thoroughbred stallion of the Bluegrass which held the running record of four miles at 7:19cents 4. As a performer Lexington was matchless, and for about a quarter of a century the turf's most tempting prizes fell largely to members of his family. He was light bay of 15 hands, 3 inches, by Boston, himself the greatest performer of his day; dam, Alice Carneal, she by Imp. Sharpedon. He was bred by Dr. Elisha Warfield, master of the meadows near Lexington, and was named Darley. Richard Ten Broeck acquired and renamed him Lexington. A horse of stout heart, superb muscular development and action, Lexington never broke down, but shortly after his last race, in which he defeated Lecompte, his eyes failed, and Mr. Ten Broeck sent him to Kentucky, where he made his first season at W. F. Harper's place, near Midway. His get won nearly $1,000,000, despite the War between the States during his day at stud. For 14 consecutive years, and in all 16, he led American thoroughbred sires in earnings of their get, a record never equaled. Lexington's health was excellent until his death in 1875. Buried in his paddock, his bones were later placed in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, B.C.

The Keeneland Race Course occupies about 150 acres of the old Keene Place, founded on a tract of approximately 8,000 acres granted by Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, to his kinsman, Francis Keene.

West of the race course is the junction with Rice Pike, 7.1 m.; R. from US 60 on Rice Pike to a junction with Van Meter Pike, 8.7 m.; L. on Van Meter Pike to a junction with Elkchester Pike, 9.9 m.; R. on Elkchester Pike to a junction with the Old Frankfort Pike, 11.7 m.; R. on the Old Frankfort Pike.

IDLE HOUR FARM (45), 12.5 m. (open 9 AM.-3:30 P.M.;, owned by Col. E. R. Bradley, covers 1,300 acres on both sides of the Old Frankfort Pike. Miles of white fences divide the farm into paddocks and pastures. An underground passageway connects the paddocks on each side of the pike. White and green, the racing colors of Bradley's horses, give the many buildings a neat and striking appearance. The private race course was the scene of an annual Charity Day program for the benefit of Kentucky's orphans. The farm has a tiny Catholic chapel, a solarium for yearlings, a large brick -residence, and numerous barns. Colonel Bradley had four Kentucky Derby winners Behave Yourself, 1921 (2:04y5 ); Bubbling Over, 1926 (2:03%); Burgoo King, 1932 (2:05%); and Broker's Tip, 1933 (2:06y5 ).

Behave Yourself, a big gangling colt, was a surprise winner. Colonel Bradley sent Behave Yourself and his crack colt, Black Servant, his chief dependence, to the post. Black Servant took the track and led until, half way down the home stretch, Behave Yourself came along to challenge and finally to nose out his stable mate in a whipping finish. As a green two-year-old Bubbling Over scored in his maiden effort at nearly 50-1, by coming from behind down the home stretch. Burgoo King, whose total winnings are well above $100,000, was by Bubbling Over. Broker's Tip, by Black Toney, won the Derby by a nose over Head Play.

To the left of the residence are the stables where Burgoo King and Bubbling Over are kept, together with such racers as Blue Larkspur, Balladier, and Black Servant. Blue Larkspur, a bay by Black Servant- Blossom Time, foaled in 1926, won $272,000 in the short time he stood training. Now at stud, he is sending some fine performers to the races. Black Servant, Black Toney's best son, dam Imp. Padula, was foaled in 1918. He was an excellent thoroughbred race horse in fast company, and has now replaced his sire at stud. Black Toney, foaled in 1911 and head of the stud for so many years, died in 1938. He was a thoroughbred by Peter Pan and was himself a great race horse. Black Toney sent winner after winner to the races, among them Black Gold, winner of the Kentucky Derby in 1924, Black Maria, Black Servant and Miss Jemima.

It is said of Colonel Bradley, who purchased the estate in 1906, that the name of any employee who dies in his service is never removed from the payroll as long as there is a surviving dependent. Since most of the thoroughbreds bearing the Bradley colors were named with words starting with "B," his string is known everywhere as the "B" stables.

The Old Frankfort Pike continues eastward into Lexington over the viaduct to Jefferson St.; L. on Jefferson St. to Main St.; R. on Main St. to the Zero Milestone, 18 m.

This information was Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project
of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Kentucky - 1939

 



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